Search Vol 1: 'Frisian'
Frisian becomes distinct by an abundance of diphthongs (a sound formed by a combination of two vowels lacking in other Germanic languages). Friesland eventually joined in 1588 the Republic of Seven United Provinces, later to become the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815 after the defeat of the villanous Napoleon.
In the fifth century Angles and Jutes from today's Denmark, Frisians from the North Sea coast, and Saxons from Northern Germany pushed their way via the Northern European coast into Britain, replacing some 470 years of Roman rule. Brabantian is classified as a dialect of Dutch. here, 'Teutonic Mythology' by Jacob Grimm (1785 - 1863), The first study of Germanic Linguistics (Search for 'Frisian'), Teutonic Mythology, by Jacob Grimm (1882) Volume 1 However, when the Avars entered the Balkan from Pannonia, they were defeated by Roman emperor Maurice's army late sixth century, after his campaign against the Sassanids, and payments stopped. Nearly all Englishmen, like Frisians and Scandinavians have grey-blue eyes, as even referred to in popular literature of the day (19th century). These include: MultiTree considers Flemish to include the four principal Dutch dialects in the Flemish region (Flanders): Brabantian, East Flemish, West Flemish and Limburgish as well as three other dialects. Lygians, comprising of (H)arii, Helvecones, Manimi, Elysii, and Naharvali; coastal Gothones (~Goths), Rugii and Lemovii, and across the water the Suiones (~Swedes), and Sitones. in the American Cyclopaedia Vol 7, by George Ripley and Charles A Dana, 1874, Examples of North Frisian Pronouns and their conjugations, Examples of Inter-Germanic personal pronouns and their conjugations (Gothic, Old Swedish, Old English, Old Saxon, North Frisian) taken from In fact, Taylor even suggest that the latter's very collective names look to be derived from equipment of the invading hosts, "whether armed with javelin (franca), sword (seax), or partisan (Langbarta)". Copy/Paste), Translate online: Frisian to/from English, 'Old English' dictionary from/to modern English, woordenboeken / Dictionaries Friese Taal / Frisian / Frison / Friesisch (no longer working), West Frisian Dictionary (no longer working), 1000 Friese Gedichten / 1000 Frisian rhymes, Old Frisian / Altfriesisches Worterbuch door Tileman Wiarta (1786), Old Frisian / Altfriesisches Worterbuch door Dr Karl Baron von Richthofen (1840), Old Frisian / Oud Friesch woordenboek, Foeke Buitenrust Hettema (1888, proefschrift), 'Beschrijvinge van de Heerlijkheydt Frieslandt', Christianus Schotanus, Frisian/Dutch/Latin (1603 - 1671), Frisian Law / Friesche Regtkennis (Iurisprudentia Frisica) - (15th century transl. Search Vol 2: 'Frisian' see also: It is often called an "in-between-language" or "intermediate language," intermediate between dialects and standard Dutch. Frisian uses so many Dutch loan words, and the same grammar, it's basically mutually intelligible. Elections were held for councillors and administrators per district, annual meetings held between the seven Frisian coastal territories, a legal system maintained, as found in the 1150AD legal code of Rustringen (East Frisia), and in (middle) Friesland as surviving in the Christianus Schotanus edition of 1655 'Beschrijvinge en Chronijk van de Heerlijkheid van Friesland', 1655 maintained (in Latin and Frisian). You will find these at Wikipedia site, 'Grammatica der Friese Talen' (Frisian Grammar) It isn’t a language of it’s own, but it’s a dialect of the Dutch language. Brabantian and East Flemish are classified as Dutch dialects, under the Central Southern Dutch dialect group. Afrikaans has a very similar vocabulary, but a very significantly different grammar.
no separate races, just varying amounts of melatonin), Prevailing statistical occurence of y-DNA in Europe, Tracing Frisians via DNA
Afrikaans is Dutch but with English and African words mixed in. Often, middle-class characters in a television series will be speaking tussentaal, lower-class characters use the dialect of the location where the show is set(West Flemish,...), and upper-class characters will speak Flemish. Tacitus lists the following tribes in 'Germania' and 'Agricola', (98AD): Marsi, Gambrivii, Vandali, Caninefates, Batavi (of the Chatti), Tungri (across the Rhine), Mattiaca, Aravisci, Treves, Chatti (Hessians), Usipii (~Usipetes), Tencteri, Bructeri, Chamavi and Agrivarii (~here presumed Saxon tribes, later called the Franks, and sometimes referred to as 'Sygambrians' by Romans), Dulgibini, Chasuarii, Frisii (Greater and Lesser), Chauci (~later called Saxons), 'A Comparative Grammar of the Teutonic Languages', by James Helfenstein (1870) - Many refs to 'Old Frisian' Frisians regarded themselves as free people and not subject to foreign authority. Scotland: Firth of Forth is called 'Frisian Sea' by Nennius (*769AD), the northern shore the 'Frisian Shore'. Dictionary of the Anglo-Saxon Language, Joseph Bosworth, 1838 The term Flemish itself has become ambiguous. Frisia was divided during the middle ages in three parts: West-Frisia, later absorbed by the Dutchy of Holland, separated by the intruding Zuiderzee, East Frisia (governed by Ciksena chieftains, and eventually absorbed by Prussia, including North Frisia via Schleswig-Holstein) and middle Friesland (more often since referred to as West Frisia or Friesland), more or less autonomous with its own judicial system.
See here a similar example of 16 century Gothic as compared to (modern) Germanic languages (the Gothic language no longer exist as a living language). You will find more examples From below references, the modern English DNA (Mercia's Midlands area, less affected by subsequent migrations to England in the 16th, 18th, and 20th centuries) clearly shows a close kinship, indistinguishable from modern Frisian DNA, as also described in 'Y-chromosomes as Evidence of Anglo Saxon Mass Migration'. "In the Rhine itself, for almost an hundred Miles in Length, is the most noble Island of the Batavi, Cannenufates ; and others of the Frisii, Cauchi, Frisiaboni, Sturii, and Marsatii, which are spread between Helius and Flevus. References, (elves, giants, creation, elements, trees/animals, sky, day and night, summer/winter, time/world, souls/death, Teutonic Mythology, by Jacob Grimm, (1883) Volume 3 The Vandali, Suevi (Suebi) and Lygians are considered collective names, like the Allemanni, and the later Franks and Saxons and possibly the Scandinavian Longobards (sometimes referred to as 'long beards'), who ruled the Italian peninsula from 568 - 774, although according to Britannica.com they themselves are considered part of the Suevi with the Alemanni, Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri and Semnones. Then Genseric, king of the Vandals, sacked Rome in 455AD after having gained control of Roman North Africa and sacking Carthage in 439AD. There is a lot of confusion and misunderstanding about Dutch from the Netherlands and Dutch from Belgium. Eastern Origins of Celtic Nations, by Dr. Pritchard, 1831). Roman historian Procopius (500 - 554 AD) in his 'Gothic Wars', describes Frisians among the three nations Angiloi, Phrissones, and Britones, that inhabited Britain in his time. Search Vol 2: 'Frisian' 'Germanic Genitives' ed. While the Vikings raided the European coast until around 840AD, subsequent resistance lead to many defeats of the Vikings by the Saxons and Franks, and the Vikings were more inclined to create settlements that could be sustained and defended. According to Bede, prior to this date in the 3d and 4th centuries, there were in Britain in the service of Rome, many auxiliary Frisian garrisons near Hadrian's wall  Tussentaal is used in entertainment television but rarely in informative programmes (like the news), which normally use Flemish accents with standard Dutch vocabulairy. Today, Frisian is still spoken by many in the North of the Netherlands and again taught in the schools, and also still resembles English more than any other language (see many examples following below). When attempting to cross south of the Danube, the Avars were twice stopped by Frankish king Sigebert I.
The Domesday book, a census collected by yet another Scandinavian Northman, William the Conqueror, describes the economic state and social make-up of the Anglo-Saxon nation in 1086, twenty years after the conquest, with a view to extort taxes from a nation 'many times richer than Normandy in wealth and in military strength' according to William's biographer William of Poitiers to support a large occupying force.
Combined with linguistics and modern DNA research, a completer picture can be established of early Germanic peoples, their kinship, customs and language(s). Interestingly, the Gothic word for Father, "Atta' closely resembles the Frisian 'Heit' for father, as in "æt", the old Danish word for 'family' or 'lineage'.
Note also the African Massai's untouched rendition of the story of Gilgamesh (a worldwide flood), which clearly originated in Mesopotamia, or the wanderings of Bantu tribes in Africa, always from the far north to southern and western Africa in the last 500 years or so, displacing the brown peoples like bushmen, hottentots and pygmies). Tussentaal is slowly gaining popularity in Flanders because it is used a lot in television dramas and comedies. by Ackerman, Simon and Zimmer, 'West Frisian is the only Frisian tongue (of several) that developed a standard language and a full-grown literature.
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