Some projects might need to divert from the default behavior and enforce an earlier version of a dependency e.g. In the example above, A would have to say it strictly depends on 1.1. For example, if we add opencsv as another dependency to our project above, which also depends on commons-beanutils, commons-collection is no longer excluded as opencsv itself does not exclude it. Gradle Goodness: Handle Copying Duplicate Files, Developer Forcing dependencies via ExternalDependency.setForce(boolean) is deprecated and no longer recommended: If you use excludes, make sure that you do not utilise any code path requiring the excluded dependency by sufficient test coverage. if the source code of the project depends on an older API of a dependency than some of the external libraries. After Gradle executes the task, the Run window should open to display the output. See the original article here.
Utility Gradle task to find where duplicate classes come from (for Gradle 4. Moving Layout from Zeplin to Android Studio, Use gradle zip in local system without downloading it everytime using gradle-wrapper, Android Application Development Lesson – 2 – Environmental Variables, Solved – Cannot resolve symbol Android Studio.
This is the gradle file I have right now. It can be hard to figure out why you ended up with these errors and where you did that. The following build file create four task of type Copy, each with a different duplicate strategy. There might be different use cases for downgrading: a bug was discovered in the latest release, your code depends on a lower version which is not binary compatible, your code doesn’t depend on the code paths which need a higher version of a dependency.
Also, make sure that you’re not duplicating the dependencies. Gradle resolves any dependency version conflicts by selecting the latest version found in the dependency graph. If you are developing a library, you have to be aware that this information is not published, and so sometimes an exclude can be the better alternative. To avoid such duplication, comment out those duplicate lines. From mobile apps to microservices, from small startups to big enterprises, Gradle helps teams build, automate and deliver better software, faster. We must use the setDuplicatesStrategymethod to configure how Gradle behaves. Gradle however, offers a variety of features that might be better suited to solve a certain use case. Enforcing a dependency version, Example 3. It is more often that you see DuplicateFileException: Duplicate files copied in APK META-INF/.. errors in the Gradle build system. In general, forcing dependencies is done to downgrade a dependency. If, for some reason, you can’t use strict versions, you can force a dependency doing this: If the project requires a specific version of a dependency on a configuration-level then it can be achieved by calling the method ResolutionStrategy.force(java.lang.Object). howto fix: tell gradle to exclude org. gradle打包时遇到： java. A popular example are clashing logging API implementations (like log4j and log4j-over-slf4j) or modules that have different coordinates in different versions (like com.google.collections and guava). Few other build systems are more lenient compared to the Gradle build system. Over a million developers have joined DZone. In Java, it is typical that if you include the same class file twice or more in a classpath, the duplicates are automatically ignored. Historically, excludes were also used as a band aid to fix other issues not supported by some dependency management systems. conflicting strict dependencies will trigger a build failure that you have to resolve. This also happens because of the duplicate class files.
Now, a consumer, A, depends on both B and C:1.1. strict dependencies can be used with rich versions, meaning that it’s better to express the requirement in terms of a strict range combined with a single preferred version. Effectively, we are expressing that we only use a subset of the library, which does not require the commons-collection library. The parameter is a value of the enumeration DuplicatesStrategy. For example, here’s how generally files get duplicated. Using strict versions, you will effectively depend on the version you declare, even if a transitive dependency says otherwise. If versions of dependencies clash, it is usually better to adjust the version through a dependency constraint, instead of attempting to exclude the dependency with the undesired version. However, the production source code of the project requires an API from Commons Codec 1.9 which is not available in 1.10 anymore. In this example, we add a dependency to commons-beanutils but exclude the transitive dependency commons-collections. This is only an example to illustrate potential pitfalls. This means that if you choose a single version in a strict constraint, then the version can no longer be upgraded, unless the consumer also sets a strict version constraint on the same module. Marketing Blog. By this, you tell Gradle that a dependency between two modules is never needed â i.e. For example, here we use the setSimpleProperty() method to modify properties defined by setters in the Person class, which works fine. Don’t forget to clean, rebuild after making changes! Resolving mutually exclusive dependency conflicts: 0-milestone-9 does not include debug information about local variables. Solved – DuplicateFileException: Duplicate files copied in APK META-INF/.. // compile files('libs/httpmime-4.3.5.jar'), 'org.x.x.x:org.x.x.x.x.org.apache.http.client:4.x.x', "org.apache.httpcomponents:httpcore:4.x.x", "org.apache.httpcomponents:httpmime:4.x.x", 'org.apache.httpcomponents:httpmime:4.x.x'. Excluding a transitive dependency might lead to runtime errors if external libraries do not properly function without them. You may consider to look into the following features: Update or downgrade dependency versions: Another situation that you often see solved by excludes is that two dependencies cannot be used together because they represent two implementations of the same thing (the same capability). So if there are multiple dependencies on a library, excludes are only exercised if all dependencies agree on them. Sometimes we come in the situation to exclude transitive dependency. In particular, a strict version will override any other strict version on the same module found transitively. Since the set doesnot support duplicate entries, you will get only unique elements left with TreeSet. Thus the same file, when included more than once, makes a duplicate error. Transitive dependencies can be excluded on the level of a declared dependency. Excluding a transitive dependency for multiple dependency declaration, Declaring Dependencies between Subprojects, Understanding Configuration and Execution, Understanding Library and Application Differences, Producing and Consuming Variants of Libraries, Modeling Feature Variants and Optional Dependencies, Overriding transitive dependency versions, it’s better to express the requirement in terms of a, Forced dependencies vs strict dependencies, ResolutionStrategy.force(java.lang.Object), Resolving mutually exclusive dependency conflicts.
Using a utility from the beanutils library, Example 6. 0-alpha1) and classes.
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