La migration des jeunes: quelles mobilités? establish the link between the history of a notable family and more widespread notions of the life course, gender, and masculinity. Collins, M. 2012. This allowed colonial government the right to inspect and assert greater control over education. 2This essay attempts to reclaim Rabindranath Tagore through his “ages of life” – as a son, father, and educator – and his envisioning of an alternate education and masculinity. Beset with ambivalence and contradictions, his sensibility was also conditioned by his contextual reality as a son and father. Contribution : L’essai contribue à notre compréhension du fait que dans un contexte socioculturel et politicoéconomique précis, le rôle des « pères », biologiques et métaphoriques, a atteint une signification accrue en Inde coloniale. Unlike the majority of the Indian population for whom the boundaries of age and the stages of life were blurry, Rabindranath, as a male from a privileged background, enjoyed distinct “ages of life” evident in his self-writings. Reflecting on his boyhood experience when he felt the disconnect with rote English learning, he argued that the failure of the Bengalis to communicate their ideas and opinions effectively like an, could be explained by the lack of connection they felt with Western-style education imparted in schools and colleges. I do not remember any occasion when Father subjected any of us to physical punishment. London, Macmillan. Rabindranath’s deepest emotions as a husband and father were best expressed in his letters to his wife when he traveled. Sinha, M. 1999. 2013. Identifying imperialism as the principal enemy, the drafting of alternate educational strategies suggested an overturning of the colonial model and a refusal to be treated like enfeebled children by the colonial state. 1835. Tome II, GRAAT (Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Américaines de Tours), p. 337-351. Drawing on Tagore’s everyday experiences captured in his personal writings, essays, and correspondence, this essay demonstrates the tangled relationship between his domestic reality and his public commitment to social justice and education. Backed by a sizeable section of the native population who realized the importance of promoting western-style learning, Macaulay’s Minute was followed by two other official proclamations, Wood’s Despatch (1854) and the Hunter Commission (1882), that laid the blueprint for the colonial education system. He claimed that his countrymen would gain their India by “fighting against the education which teaches them that a country is greater than the ideals of humanity” (Chatterjee, 2011, p. 99). As his son noted, fully aware of the ill-effects of the stereotyped school-teaching, Rabindranath was “anxious that his own children should be spared such unhealthy and stifling influences (Tagore, 1958, p. 20).” The children were taught English by a British tutor who lived with them; they also learned Mathematics, and Sanskrit; Bengali was taught by Rabindranath himself. 25Rabindranath’s manliness, manifested in his role as a dear husband and a close parent, bolstered his critique of colonial education. He blamed colonial education for the emasculation of Indians. To promote his idea of freedom for children he advocated a spatio-structural transformation of the classroom. The Tagores had the practice of renaming their brides who usually came from humble social backgrounds. Neither he nor his family superseded prevailing caste, class, and gender norms, but the family as a whole, and Rabindranath’s meditations and activism on social ills, gender norms, and education, gestured towards a radicality that set the Tagores apart as trend-setters and culture-builders in colonial India. The micropolitics of everyday life shaped by many competing forces reconstituted his fatherhood in its nurturing, care-giving roles both within home and outside, thus giving a new meaning to masculinity that was not just an expression of physical might but also an “education in emotional literacy” (Broughton & Rogers, 2007, p. 22). Updated: Nov 27, 2011, 04:20 PM IST. But Tagore’s pedagogy, creative and secular, offered an alternative, drawing on. As a rebel child, Rabindranath refused to comply with the demands of a colonial education system. […] We must make room for them so that they can mould their lives in their own way” (Tagore, 1901, pp. The school’s main subjects of reform were males, with age unspecified, and dissemination of education among women followed a different trajectory (Forbes, 2007). Rabindranath’s pedagogical enterprise was a family project. As Rabindranath expressed so succinctly, his father “held up a standard, not a disciplinary rod” (Tagore, 1917, pp. By 1880-90, the native literati started taking initiative on their own. Rabindranath’s pedagogical enterprise was a family project. As Teresa Hubel pointed out, Swarnakumari Devi’s family connections and gender stood in the way of recognition of her literary contribution and leadership (Hubel, 2010). Broughton, T. L. et H. Rogers (dir.) His paternalism embraced a “manliness” privileging moral and spiritual sustenance over economic and political considerations. Scholars have blamed the lack of success on his elitist background. Rathindranath Tagore (Rathi) Rabindranath’s second child Rathindranath Tagore, who was his eldest son, was born on 27 November 1888. Political Agenda of Education: A Study of Colonialist and Nationalist Ideas. For him, “the highest education is that which does not merely give us information but makes our life in harmony with all existence.” He believed that “the object of education is the freedom of mind […] though freedom has its risk and responsibility as life itself has” (Tagore, 1916). According to Rabindranath, the mantra made the connection between individual consciousness and external reality, linking the inner self with its deepest aspects and transcending boundaries of race, class, nationality, and religion. We did not reach his immediate presence.”. “A Mutiny of Silence: Swarnakumari Devi’s Sati,” Ariel: A Review of International English Literature, Vol. Further exploration of masculinity thus demands investigation of familial and filial relationships that traversed the private-public domains of politics and culture. The strong influence of the father stood in contrast with the distant and short-lived relationship between Rabindranath and his mother Sarada Devi (Banerjee, 2005). Through his conception of the ashram (hermitage), the ancient Indian institution, Rabindranath “sought to imagine a space where his ideas of self-reliance and democracy could be translated into praxis” (Chandra, 2014).
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